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I know that salts have ionic bonds, while molecules have covalent bonds, but I do not exactly understand what properties having these bonds give? As in, what about having an ionic/covalent bond makes something a salt/molecule?
I usually use a trick to connect the types of bonds to their characteristics. For example, when salts are placed in water they can easily dissolve into ions, hence they have "ionic" bonds. Covalent compounds have relatively opposing characteristics compared to ionic compounds; they don't easily separate into ions in water and they don't conduct electricity well (because of the former reason). Thus, covalent bonds mainly form molecules.
Salts are able to dissolve in water so you know it has ionic bonds. I'm not necessarily sure about molecules alone, but I think it may safe to assume that it is a molecule if it does NOT dissolve in water, and of course has covalent bonds.
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