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This is based on the electro negativity difference. The greater the electronegative difference, the more ionic the molecule is. Because oxygen is more electronegative than sulfur, co2 would have greater ionic character even though it is not an ionic molecule. Neither are.
I think that the bigger the difference between the electronegativity of two atoms, the more likely it is to be ionic. I think that it is a matter of understanding the trends of electronegativity. The greatest electronegative element is Fluorine and the least being Francium.
There are tables that list out the electronegativity values that you can use to compare to determine the difference in electronegativity. However, we won't get to use one on a test so it's mostly about understanding electronegativity trends in the periodic table. Electronegativity generally increases in an upwards diagonal towards fluorine.
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