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Well, the difference between the two would be that covalent bonds are the sharing of electrons between nonmetals; whether polar or non polar. Polar covalent bonds have to do with a lack of symmetrical distribution of electrons in the bond. As a result, the molecule formed from the polar covalent bond would have a negative end and a positive end on certain sides of the atoms because there is an electronegativity difference between the atoms bonded in the polar covalent bond. Hope this helps.
Yes, covalent bonds refer to the types of bonds where electrons are shared; they can be either polar or nonpolar covalent bonds. Polar covalent bonds are a type of covalent bond where the electrons are not equally shared as described above (nonpolar covalent bonds occur where electrons are equally or almost equally shared in the covalent bond)
Unless the bonded atoms are the same element, it is likely that the covalent bond has ionic characteristics/some polarity, since different elements possess different electronegativities and will therefore unequally share electrons.
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