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If an element has d electrons and tends to lose electrons when it forms an ion, that element will first lose electrons from its np orbital, followed by its ns orbitals, followed by its (n-1)d orbitals? Is that correct? Or there any exceptions to that order?
I believe you are referring to the 3d/4s orbital exception. Electrons in the 4s energy level are lost first because electrons lost first will come from the highest energy level. The 4s orbital is higher in energy than the 3d orbital.
The highest energy level electron would be lost first. For elements in the 4th row it’s important to note that the 4s is a higher energy level than 3d so if the configuration only has 3d and 4s orbitals then 4s would be lost first.
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