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This is due to the face that the effective nuclear charge will now play a much higher effect on the electrons. The electrons will have less shielding and therefore the connection to the nucleus will be greater and therefore we would need to add more energy to remove an electron than when shielding was present.
To the second question, in general, the ionization energy will decrease as we go down the periodic table due to a greater effect of shielding and therefore less done by the nucleus to keep the electrons bound. The ionization energy will increase as we go across the rows of the periodic table from left to right because as we go across the nucleus keeps getting larger and therefore has more of an effect on the electrons that are related to it. Noble gases have the highest ionization energies because it would not make sense for them to lose electrons as they are in their most stable configuration.
Cassandra_1K wrote:Why is the second ionization energy of an element always higher??
Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atoms. The second ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from a cation with a +1 charge. In this cation, there is already one more proton than there are electrons, therefore the effective nuclear charge is much higher. Removing the second electron requires much more energy than removing the first one because the nucleus pulls in the valence electrons in much more tightly after the first ionization.
The second ionization energy is always higher because when you remove the first e-, it becomes a cation which is positively charged. That positive charge is then more attracted to the negative charge of the electron, making it harder to pull a second electron away.
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