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Benzene has two possible resonant structures, with alternating double and single covalent bonds between Carbon atoms. On account of this variability in the density of the electron cloud, there is known to be a stable cloud of electrons on either side of the benzene molecule. Thus, this provides great stability to the molecule and lowers its reactivity.
Benzene's usual structure is a 6-carbon ring structure with 3 double bonds. It can also be written as a line structure. But what's special about benzene is that, according to the textbook, the line structure doesn't fit its experimental evidence. For instance, the C-C bonds in benzene are the same length, but the line structure implies that benzene has 3 long single bonds and 3 short double bonds. However, by writing the line structure with a circle within the hexagonal ring, it shows that the C-C bonds are equal.
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