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These values are experimentally measured bond lengths of an N--O bond in NO3- and a C--C bond in C6H6 specifically. These are important because they show that real-life models of molecules with resonance structures are not any one of these possible structures at a time, but actually an average of all of them. Take NO3-, for example: the experimentally measured length of an N--O single bond is 1.40 angstrom, and the length of an N--O double bond is 1.20 angstrom. The fact that all of the N--O bonds in a nitrate ion are experimentally measured as 1.24 angstrom shows that the multiple bond character is spread over the entire molecule, rather than one of the bonds at a time being double bond.
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