Anions and Cations

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Alfred Barrion 2H
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Joined: Sat Jul 20, 2019 12:16 am

Anions and Cations

Postby Alfred Barrion 2H » Sun Oct 27, 2019 11:58 pm

Why do certain elements make anions and others make cations?

Ryan Yee 1J
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Joined: Sat Aug 17, 2019 12:16 am

Re: Anions and Cations

Postby Ryan Yee 1J » Mon Oct 28, 2019 12:03 am

It all depends on how many valence electrons an element has in relation to an octet. If an element has 3 or less, it becomes easier to form a cation because losing the 3 electrons requires less energy than gaining 5 to get an octet. If it has greater than 5, it'll likely form an anion because gaining the 3 electrons is easier than losing 5 to get an octet

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Re: Anions and Cations

Postby zachary_nhem_4I » Mon Oct 28, 2019 12:11 am

Anions refer to elements that gain electrons and cations are elements that lose electrons

Jordan Ziegler 2J
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Re: Anions and Cations

Postby Jordan Ziegler 2J » Mon Oct 28, 2019 1:53 am

The pattern of ionization follows the number of valence electrons, as well as the trend of ionization energy across a period.

As you go across a period, it will take more energy to remove an electron (because the effective nuclear charge increases). Therefore, atoms with more than four valence electrons take less energy to fill an octet (so an anion will be formed), and atoms with fewer than four valence electrons take less energy to lose remaining electrons to reach an octet (so a cation will be formed).

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Re: Anions and Cations

Postby 305385703 » Mon Oct 28, 2019 9:14 am

The tendency of an atom to make cations or anions depends on their ionization energy. Atoms to the left of the metalloids usually form cations, and those to the left usually form anions. The metalloids are the separating factor as they are the atoms for which the ionization energy is intermediate, meaning the atom is somewhere between the relatively high ionization energy of the non-metals to the right and the relatively low ionization energy of the atoms to the left.

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