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Anions are generally larger than its corresponding neutral atom because adding electrons increases the number of electron-electron repulsion interactions that take place. Cations are smaller than the corresponding neutral atoms, since the valence electrons, which are furthest away from the nucleus, are lost (there is less repulsion between the electrons).
Anions would be larger because the extra electrons would cause greater electron-electron repulsion in the atom and would decrease the effective nuclear charge. Cations would be the opposite, since less electrons means less electron-electron repulsion.
Anions are larger because they have more electrons than cations. These extra electrons may be part of additional shells, which would significantly increase the size, or they may just add more electron - electron repulsion forces, which would somewhat increase the size of the atom.
cations, especially in groups 1 and 2, will become significantly smaller because they often achieve +1 and +2 charges respectively. When this occurs, these atoms completely lose their outer shells. Their positively charge nucleus will pull the remaining electrons extra tightly. ultimately, this results in these cations being very small.
Cations are significantly smaller than anions because they have lost the electrons in their outermost shell. The protons in the nucleus pull the remaining electrons very tightly towards the nucleus, decreasing the atomic radius. Anions, on the other hand, gain electrons to complete their outer shell, increasing the atomic radius.
With cations, the electrons are pulled more closely towards the nucleus because there is less electron shielding occurring. Whereas an anion, because of the additional valence electrons, have a larger outer shell.
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