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The greater the polarizing power of the cation or the polarizability on an anion is, then the percentage of covalent characters will also be greater. If the cation is smaller, there is a greater polarizing power so there will be more covalent characters. Similarly, the larger an anion is means greater polarizability so more covalent characters. When the charge of an ion increases so does the electrostatic attraction of the cation for those outer electrons of the anion and hence it is more likely to form covalent bonds.
Polarization in ionic bonds refers to the electron cloud distortion of the ions. when a cation is highly charged it will exert a strong electrostatic attraction on the e- of the anion and distort the electron cloud. If the anion has a large electron cloud it will be easily distorted. The greater the amount of electrons, the less control the nuclear charge has on charge distribution, and thus the increased polarizability of the atom.
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