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Anions are generally much larger than cations because they gain electrons to attain the octet, and we already know that anions are negative ions while cations are positive ions. When a cation gets closer to the vicinity of an anion, the positive charge distorts the electron cloud of the negatively charged anion. Since anions have more electrons, other ions would affect its electron cloud because the electrons are spread out, so they can be distorted.
When a cation exerts an electrostatic attraction on the electrons surrounding the anion, the anion's electrons are pulled into the Bonding region/internuclear area. When there is electron density in the region between the nuclei, the spherical electron cloud of the anion is no longer spherical due to it being distorted in the direction of the cation. Therefore, the bond has more covalent character.
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