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How can you tell if a certain molecule is a solid, liquid, gas, or aqueous? I think Prof Lavelle went over it in a lecture but I didn't understand and know that it's related to bonding, if someone could just clarify?
I think it will typically be given to us. Perhaps in some cases, with common substances like water, they might give us a temperature and expect us to know the state. Otherwise, I'm pretty sure we aren't expected to know this? Maybe look at bond strengths, and just know that the stronger the intermolecular bonds, the higher the melting/boiling point.
I think Dr. Lavelle was also talking about elements at room temperature. Usually I think they would tell you but if not Mercury and Bromine are the only elements that are liquids at room temperature. The metals and some nonmetals would be solid, and the Noble Gases, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Fluorine, and Chlorine are gases at room temperature.
In terms of bonding, the stronger the bonds between molecules the more solid a structure it will form, meaning stronger bonds are created in the formation of solids than liquids and liquids than gases. Varying viscosity in liquids is also caused by bond strength.
It is not something we will solve but will be given to us. In relation to bonding, the states have to do with polarizability and bond strength. As we go down a row, the polarizability increases because the size increase, and there's more electrons that is farther from the nucleus, which makes an atom more partial negative. Therefore, the interaction forces get's stronger as we go down the row. In weaker interactions, it is easier to break apart, hence, lower boiling point, and in stronger interactions, it is more difficult to break apart, hence, higher boiling point.
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