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Oxygen tend to form double bonds because of the formal charge. A molecule is more stable when the atoms in the molecules have formal charges of zero. The formal charge for oxygen is zero when it has a double bond because the formal charge equals the valence minus the sum of the lone electrons and the quotient of the shared electrons and 2 [FC=VE-(L+(S/2))]. Oxygen has six valence electrons. When it forms a single bond, it has six lone electrons and two shared electrons. The formal charge of this is -1. When it forms a double bond, it has 4 lone electrons and 4 shared electrons. The formal charge is zero, which is more stable, thus oxygen tend to form double bonds but oxygen does not always form double bonds, there are times when oxygen form other bonds.
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