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Covalent bond is when two atoms share electrons. Ionic bond is when an electron is given up or accepted; the ions are attracted to one another because they have opposite charges.
You can also find the electronegativity difference of two atoms. If the difference is >2, it is an ionic bond. If the difference is <1.5, it is a covalent bond.
Usually, if the electronegativity difference is above 2, then it is considered ionic, but if the difference less than 1.5, then it's usually covalent. However, you would need to be given the electronegativity values to do this. So, if you're given the molecular formulas (such as HCl or HI), one of the best ways to tell if it's more covalent or ionic is to look and see which of the non-metal elements is more electronegative. Since electronegativity increases when moving towards top right hand corner (F having the highest electronegativity), then Cl would have a closer electronegative value to H than I would. Thus, HF would have a more ionic bond and HCl would have a more covalent bond.
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