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Fluorine has 7 valence electrons and wants to complete the octect so its electronegativity value is the highest at 3.8. The definition of electronegativity is the magnitude of how attracted valence electrons are. This explains why they all lose and gain electrons to become like the noble gases because they all have a complete octect.
Electronegativity is affected by both nuclear charge and the locations/number of electrons. Fluorine is the most electronegative because it has the highest nuclear charge in its period (after Ne) and the smallest size in its group. Within a period, the most electronegative element is the one farthest to the right (excluding the noble gases) because it has the most protons and thus the greatest nuclear charge, making its "pull" on electrons greater. Within a group, the element with the smallest n is smaller will be more electronegative because there's less electron shielding (so the effective nuclear charge is higher) and the distance from the nucleus is smaller, making the electrostatic force greater. Therefore, since electronegativity increases across a period and decreases down a group, F is the most electronegative.
A lot of people answered the reason, but I just want to make a side note that knowing the electronegativity trend might be really helpful. It just makes our lives easier. While you are at it, might as well check out the trend for atomic radius as well.
It's the most electronegative because of its orbital 2P which optimally would contain six electrons. Because Fluorine only has five, it's attraction is due to being so close to its most stable configuration, making it the most electronegative.
Hi. Electronegativity is the measure of an elements "electron pulling ability." Florine has a high electron affinity as it only needs one electron to complete it's shell and it is small meaning its electrostatic forces are high, so it would as a result have a high electron pulling ability and thus is highly electronegative.
Fluorine is the electronegative because it has 7 valence electrons. It only needs one more electron in order for it to have a noble gas configuration (electron octet). Therefore, it easily attracts electron and is highly reactive.
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