Electronegativity vs. Electron Affinity vs. Ionization Energy

Moderators: Chem_Mod, Chem_Admin

Emily_Stenzler_2H
Posts: 196
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 10:02 pm

Electronegativity vs. Electron Affinity vs. Ionization Energy

Postby Emily_Stenzler_2H » Mon Nov 09, 2020 2:05 pm

Can someone please explain the difference between electronegativity, electron affinity and ionization energy? Thanks!

Janelle Gokim 3B
Posts: 118
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:42 pm
Been upvoted: 4 times

Re: Electronegativity vs. Electron Affinity

Postby Janelle Gokim 3B » Mon Nov 09, 2020 2:08 pm

Electronegativity is described as a calculated value that demonstrates the pulling power of an atom. So F being a highly electronegative atom on the periodic table tells us that it has a great pulling force for its electrons. Electron affinity is more so the energy released when electrons are added to an atom in the gas phase. If it its favorable, meaning the atom wants electrons, energy is released. However, if it is unfavorable, energy is required to take in those electrons.

Alara Aygen 3K
Posts: 109
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:57 pm
Been upvoted: 2 times

Re: Electronegativity vs. Electron Affinity vs. Ionization Energy

Postby Alara Aygen 3K » Mon Nov 09, 2020 2:10 pm

Electronegativity is the ability to attract electrons. Electron affinity is the amount of energy released when a new electron is added to the neutral atom. Ionization energy is the minimum energy needed to remove the least tightly held electron. Hope this helps!

Benjamin Chen 1H
Posts: 119
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:37 pm
Been upvoted: 7 times

Re: Electronegativity vs. Electron Affinity

Postby Benjamin Chen 1H » Mon Nov 09, 2020 2:11 pm

The main difference for me is that Electron Affinity is experimentally determined while Electronegativity is calculated from Electron Affinity and Ionization Energy.

Electron Affinity is the Energy released when an electron is added to an atom (in gas phase)
(Ionization Energy is the Energy needed to remove an electron from an atom (in gas phase))
Electronegativity is a value that measures the electron pulling power of an atom

I want to say that these all describe the same thing of an atom and its relationship with an electron. They all follow the same periodic trends (generally) and maybe one of these three interpretations is better in some instances than others.

KatarinaReid_3H
Posts: 196
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:41 pm
Been upvoted: 4 times

Re: Electronegativity vs. Electron Affinity

Postby KatarinaReid_3H » Mon Nov 09, 2020 2:11 pm

They are actually very similar and have the same periodic trends. Electronegativity is a calculated value from the measured electron affinity and ionization energy. It is the electron pulling power. Thus a greater effective nuclear charge yields greater electronegativity. Electron affinity is based on the amount of energy change when an atom gains an electron. For metals, they are less likely to gain an electron so it takes an energy input. For nonmetals that are more electronegative, it is a negative change in energy because they actually release energy by gaining an electron.

Janelle Gokim 3B
Posts: 118
Joined: Wed Sep 30, 2020 9:42 pm
Been upvoted: 4 times

Re: Electronegativity vs. Electron Affinity vs. Ionization Energy

Postby Janelle Gokim 3B » Mon Nov 09, 2020 2:12 pm

Sorry also forgot to clarify that ionization energy is the energy required to take away electrons. Atoms with smaller radius tend to be holding onto their electrons more tightly, so the ionization energy in that case would be higher than say an atom with a radius that is larger. All three go hand in hand together, and follow almost identical trends. Electron affinity however is more so focusing on release of energy and favorability which is directly tied into electronegativity and ionization energy.

Samantha Pedersen 2K
Posts: 133
Joined: Wed Sep 18, 2019 12:21 am
Been upvoted: 9 times

Re: Electronegativity vs. Electron Affinity vs. Ionization Energy

Postby Samantha Pedersen 2K » Mon Nov 09, 2020 2:20 pm

Ionization energy is the energy required to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase whereas electron affinity is the amount of energy released when an electron is added to an atom in the gas phase. You can also think of ionization energy as how difficult it is to remove an electron from an atom, and you can think of electron affinity as how much an atom wants to gain an electron.

The difference between electron affinity and electronegativity is very subtle. Again, electron affinity is a measure of how much an atom wants to gain an electron, but electronegativity is a measure of how strongly an atom pulls bonding electrons toward itself.

Finally, electronegativity is a calculated value while electron affinity and ionization energy are experimentally measured values. I hope this helps!


Return to “Ionic & Covalent Bonds”

Who is online

Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 1 guest