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Sigma bonds result from the head-on overlap of the orbitals of the two atoms, which has more area of overlap than pi bonds which result from the parallel overlap of orbitals. That is why sigma bonds are stronger.
Sigma bonds head-on overlap puts the electron closer to the other atom's nucleus. The pi bonds overlap does not put the electron as close in comparison to the sigma bond, so the sigma bond is stronger.
I understand the argument that sigma bonds are stronger because they have more overlap, but aren't longer bonds weaker because they are more easily broken? aka sigma bonds versus double bonds which are shorter in length as as a result we say they are stronger because they don't break as easily?
For one, sigma bonds go directly into one another and have a greater overlap, which makes it stronger than pi bonds, which must go outwards and then connect across a gap. Moreover, I believe interactions w/ multiple bonds are stronger because they have multiple bonds, not necessarily because they have pi bonds. Someone correct me if I'm wrong.
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