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The concepts are related. However, to be exact, polarity is a practical and measurable quality of a molecule or bond. Formal charge is more of a theoretical or bookkeeping concept that helps predict the locations of electrons in a molecule using simple valence bond theory.
If we are asked to give the formal charges for each atom of a Lewis Structure, do we give the average of the formal charges? Are we supposed to know which elements get exclude from resonance (ex. Sulfur since it is harder to form a double bond with it?)
When you are asked to give the formal charge for each atom within a Lewis structure, you just calculate that using the formal charge formula. You don't need to give an average. As for the second half of your question, the problem will probably indicate whether multiple Lewis structures (resonance) are required.
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