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In one of the first lectures of this unit, we did an example of the Lewis formula of KCl. In this example, Cl ended up with all of the electrons in the final Lewis structure. I was just wondering why this was the case? How often would we have to do this type of Lewis structure rather than what we have been doing in class more recently?
This is because it is an ionic bond. Ionic bonds form between metals and nonmetals. In this case, K is the metal and Cl is the nonmetal. To form an octet, K gives up an electron to give to Cl, so now Cl has 8 electrons and gains stability. The reason K is so willing to give up the electron is because in order for it to have an octet and become stable it needs to lose an electron. (Ionic bonds are with cations(K) and anions(Cl). This is only the case between a metal and a nonmetal. Covalent bonds are two nonmetals sharing electrons. To the second part of your question, I don’t know if we are expected to make a formula like this but I would assume so.
A way in which you can evaluate which gives or receives is when you evaluate the element on its own, in this case Cl has a higher ionization energy than K, so it is more likely/easier for Cl to receive an electron to satisfy the octet rule than K
You can also observe the electronegativity trends of the periodic table with those elements that have the highest attraction for electrons being in the top right corner of the table and those elements that are the most likely to lose electrons within a bond being in the bottom left corner.
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