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Formal energy aka formal charge is the difference between the number of valence electrons on the free atom minus number of valence electrons assigned to the atom in the molecule. It tells you how reactive the atom is and also it helps you see if you drew your Lewis structure correct because you can see if the formal charge is the same as the charge on the molecule you are drawing it for.
Formal energies/charges help you find the most stable Lewis structure, as well as confirm that it is a correct structure, because the addition of all of the formal charges of the atoms in a molecule should equal the overall charge of the molecule
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