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I'm confused as to why the lewis structure of BrF3 permits 10 electrons surrounding Br (3 single bonds with each F for a total of 6 electrons) and then two pairs of lone pairs (4 electrons). I understand Bromine needs 7 valence electrons, but why are we allowed to add those extra lone pairs and break the octet rule?
Actually bromine needs an octet BUT it can occupy more than an octet because it's an element in period 3 or later (it can occupy more electrons because of the presence of the d subshell). It's just a rule you have to memorize.
The lewis structure of BrF3 permits Br to have 10 valences electrons, which is above the octet rule of 8 valence electrons, because it is in period 3 or higher of the periodic table. Because Br is in period 4, it has an n value of n = 4. Therefore, l can be equal to 0, 1, 2, or 3. The l value of 2 creates a d-orbital, and the l value of 3 creates the f-orbital. The d-orbital can hold 10 electrons, while the f-orbital can hold 14. As long as the element is in period 3 or higher, it is able to have over 8 valence electrons.
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