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In class Wednesday Dr. Lavelle mentioned that atoms in period 3 or higher have d-orbitals in valence shell that accommodate additional e- and used PCl5 as an example. Can someone explain why and what he meant by this? It kind of went over my head in class.
Period 3 and up elements have an empty d-orbital that may be filled so that these elements can form a more stable bond (stability seems to be the trend with bond formations) with more elements. However, elements tend to form bonds within their respective orbitals, like sulfur usually forming 2 bonds (like oxygen), but, if needed, it can form 6 to reach stability.
Only elements with orbitals higher than p can have more than the octet because of the additional space. The s and p orbitals can only hold 8 electrons in total.
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