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When P bonds with other atoms, it can expand its valence shells to accommodate more than 8 valence electrons. It actually has a valence shell of 5 electrons with the electron configuration [Ne]3s23p3. Since n=3, the atom now has d-orbitals which can accommodate more electrons, and so P and subsequent atoms can have expanded octets.
Phosphorus is in the third period of the Periodic table. P-block elements in the third period and in later periods have access to the d-orbital which allows such elements to expand their valence shells. This is due to how these elements have empty d-orbitals in their valence shell.
Even though it is not shown, Phosphorus is in the 3rd shell which also has 3d10 as a part of it. Therefore, because Phosphorus's valence electrons end at 3p shell, we can also place electrons into the 3d shell which allows phosphorus to carry ten more electrons in its outer shell.
Phosphorous violates the octet rule since it can have an expanded octet. P is in the third period on the periodic table, which means it has d-orbital that can accommodate extra electrons.For example when P bonds with Cl forming PCl5, the central atom P would have a total of 10 electrons, which violates the octet rule.
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