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Electronegativity is defined as the tendency of an atom to attract a shared pair of electrons towards itself. Therefore, in a polar bond, the more electronegative atom will attract the electron density toward itself.
An atom is more electronegative when they are close to being octet. As many do say, it is a measurement of how an element may pull the electrons towards itself and it can be used to see whether the bond is ionic or covalent bond.
Electronegativity increases as you go up and to the right of the periodic table until the final Group 18 (Noble Gases). Group 18 is all the way to the right of the periodic table, except all of these have stable valence shells so their electronegativity is a much lower value than the proceeding groups.
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