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I believe delocalization has to do with resonance. When we draw a lewis structure for a compound with resonance we indicate single and double bonds. In actuality the molecule doesn't have clear single or double bonds, rather it has something in between (which makes it more stable).
In resonance, a lone pair can sometimes be in different locations with respect to the configuration. For example, drawing the lewis structure for would result in resonance between two different structures in which the lone electron pair can be placed on either oxygen atom.
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