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When a molecule has resonance, it means that a multiple bond (double bond, triple bond, etc.) can be placed in different locations within the molecule without having to move the individual atoms in the structure.
Ultimately, resonance means that lewis structures have multiple bonds in different equivalent locations. It means that sometimes, different chemical compounds have more than one correct Lewis structure. The chemical level is the same, but electrons are distributed differently around the Lewis structure. For example, a nitrate ion has 3 different ways that the Lewis structure can be drawn with 3 different positions for the double bond. The actual representation of the structure is the blending of the structures, which each bond having a partial bond character.
This means that there are multiple possibilities for electron placement, but instead of there being different molecules with different electron placement, the electrons are delocalized and move freely giving the molecule more stability.
Some Lewis Structures have multiple bonds (double/triple bonds) in different equivalent locations. You have resonance when you can place multiple bonds in different places (i.e. the placement of the double bonds)
Resonance is basically when there are multiple right lewis configurations to describe a molecule and that not every molecule is going to be fixed in one of the states so resonance is the ability for the correct model for to exist in multiple ways and the molecule can be expected to be in any one of these positions equally.
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