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A structure has delocalized electrons when it has resonance structures. You can tell if a Lewis structure has resonance structures if a double bond can be placed in multiple different places without affecting the number of valence electrons the molecule must have.
So, delocalization usually occurs with elements that have covalent bonds that can contribute to resonance. Certain lewis structures of the same compound or molecule are lower energy than others and we ideally want the lowest energy combination, which is explored with the concept of formal charge but with delocalization, it is referring how these different patterns are made: moving around the double bonds of electrons to different elements but without changing the central element.
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