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It's all about charge distribution. The closer to 0 the formal charge is, the more evenly distributed the electrons are about the molecule. If the absolute values of the formal charges of the atoms in a molecule are high, this will lead to the molecule having regions that are more negatively or positively charged than the rest of the molecule, which is generally unfavorable when we are trying to find the structure with the lowest energy (aka the most stable structure).
Arianna Perea 3H wrote:For it to be considered more stable, is it the central element that has to be closest to 0 or the surrounding ones as well?
Ideally, the central element and all the other elements should have a formal charge of zero or close to zero because this would indicate that the electrons are evenly distributed.
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