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S, P, Si, and Cl are common elements that can form an octet because they can utilize the d-orbital found in the 3rd energy level. Elements generally will only want to fill their octet and only go over and expand their octet if they have to, with these 4 elements being able to have an expanded octet.
Technically any element in the 3rd row and beyond has access to their d-orbitals, but we only really see elements in group 15,16, and 17 do this because it's highly unlikely for elements like Boron, Aluminium, or Gallium to ever have an expanded octet.
If you look at the principal levels: the 1st principal level only has an s sublevel, the 2nd has an s and a p sublevel, and the 3rd has an s, p, and d sublevel. In order to achieve more than an octet, an atom must have access to the d sublevel in order to go past their octet. This is why atoms in the 3rd principal level and beyond are the only ones that can do this.
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