Ions and Exceptions to the Octet Rule

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Rebecca Altshuler 1D
Posts: 61
Joined: Fri Sep 28, 2018 12:15 am

Ions and Exceptions to the Octet Rule

Postby Rebecca Altshuler 1D » Sat Nov 03, 2018 10:56 pm

For some of the answers on the homework, it seemed like ions sometimes used the exception to the octet rule, even when they were not copper, silver, etc. For example, on question 13 in the 6th edition, Zn+ had one electron removed from the 4s orbital and not the 3d orbital. Can anyone explain why this is?

sameeksha_panda_3h
Posts: 31
Joined: Fri Sep 28, 2018 12:25 am

Re: Ions and Exceptions to the Octet Rule

Postby sameeksha_panda_3h » Sat Nov 03, 2018 10:59 pm

Zinc has a full 3d orbital which has a higher energy than 4s does, therefore it takes less energy to break up and take an electron from the 4s orbital than is does to eject an electron from the 3d orbital.

904936893
Posts: 62
Joined: Fri Sep 28, 2018 12:29 am

Re: Ions and Exceptions to the Octet Rule

Postby 904936893 » Sat Nov 03, 2018 11:02 pm

Zn+ having an electron removed from the 4s orbital isn't an exception to a rule. Once an electron is in the 3d orbital, that orbital has a lower energy than 4s, which would mean the electron configuration is written as 3d1 4s2. Since electrons are removed from the highest energy level (the level written last in their neutral ground state configuration), the electron would be removed from the 4s orbital.

RoopshaChatterjee 1G
Posts: 30
Joined: Fri Sep 28, 2018 12:17 am

Re: Ions and Exceptions to the Octet Rule

Postby RoopshaChatterjee 1G » Sun Nov 04, 2018 9:44 am

Elements in the third period and up can have an expanded octet because they have access to the d-orbital; so there are many elements besides copper and silver that serve as an exception to the octet rule.


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