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Yes, period three elements (and those in higher periods) such as phosphorous, sulfur, and chlorine can accommodate more than 8 electrons because they have expanded valence shells (their d-orbitals can hold more electrons).
The octet rule is violated in compounds with more than eight electrons assigned to their valence shell. These are called expanded valence shell molecules. Such compounds are formed only by central atoms in the third row of the periodic table and beyond that have empty d orbitals in their valence shells that can participate in covalent bonding (includes phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine).
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