Expanded Octet Exception

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Expanded Octet Exception

Postby Danieljm1B » Sun Jul 21, 2019 6:36 pm

I understand that for atoms in Group 3, P, S, Cl, and beyond, it is possible for them to utilize the d-orbitals to expand their octets. However, what I don't understand is how many more electrons are allowed when using the d-orbital. Is it a fixed number or does it vary per atom?

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Re: Expanded Octet Exception

Postby Chem_Mod » Mon Jul 22, 2019 10:48 am

It varies between atoms as to how many it could hold. You can consider the phosphorous's hybridization state when it is excited, it can fill up the d-orbital, but it only has 5 electrons in its outer shell that can bind with other atoms (recall its electron configuration: 3s2p3). It will only be able to have a hybridization of sp3d.

Alternatively, sulfur (with electron configuration 3s2p4), it has 6 electrons in its outer shell that can bind with other atoms once it's excited and expands into the d-orbital, so it could have the hybridization of sp3d2.

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