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P, S, and Cl are definitely not the only elements that can have expanded octets. They are just when the expanded octet for elements begins - elements with associated d orbitals should all be able to have expanded octets.
I wouldn't necessarily say that those elements listed above are the only elements that have expanded valence shells, but those are some widely known examples. When you combine those elements into compounds such as phosphorus pentaflouride, then it is an expanded valence shell since the phosphorus has a valence shell of 10 electrons and not the usual 8 which corresponds to the octet rule.
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