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I understand that some elements like S and P can have more than 8 valence electrons, however, is their a way to determine what other elements have the same condition? How would you derive the amount of valence electrons for an element like these? Do we just memorize these exceptions in the table and what other ones are there?
Any element from row 3 and beyond can have expanded octet because when n=3, l=0,1,2 which means elements in the third row have access to a 3d orbital, but none of the third row elements have any electrons in that orbital yet, so they can accommodate more electrons. Elements in the fourth row have a 4d orbital that is unused, etc.
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