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If we look at the quantum number for the period 3 elements like P, S, and Cl we see that for n=3, l=0,1, or 2. Even though for the ground state electron configuration, the electrons of the period 3 elements do not fill the d orbital, they have the ability to as we can see from the angular quantum number taking on the possible value of l=2. Therefore, elements in row 3 can have expanded octets and make use of their empty d orbital to hold electrons.
Nare Arakelian Dis 3E wrote:Why are Phosphorus, Chlorine, and Sulfur exceptions to the octet rule when their electron configurations do not have a 3d orbital? Is it just because they are in the third energy level?
Though themselves do not normally occupy the 3d orbital, n=3 meaning that the d orbital (l=2) is available, therefore allowing for an expanded octet
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