8 posts • Page 1 of 1
The expanded octet comes from access to d orbitals, which can be used to create additional bonds to the 4 allowed by the s and p orbitals. In general, if an atom in a molecule can achieve a lower formal charge and make the molecule have a more logical formal charge by making more than 4 bonds (therefore violating the octet rule), it will.
In general, H, He, and Li want 2 electrons because that satisfies the 1s orbital. Elements in period 3 and any period after can accommodate more than 8 valence electrons because of the d orbitals. Always check formal charge when drawing Lewis structures to confirm that the structure you have drawn is the most stable; this is the best way to prove whether or not the octet rule should apply or not.
When a central atom has empty d-orbitals close in energy to valence orbitals, it can accommodate an expanded octet. Basically, atoms in the p-block of period 3+ can accommodate an expanded octet, but the size of the central atom also matters. It has to be physically capable of forming bonds to more extra atoms.
Who is online
Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 2 guests