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Elements with orbitals in the d-block can have expanded octets. However, although P, S, and Cl do not have orbitals in the d-block, they are exceptions to the octet rule and can also hold more electrons than the standard octet.
The elements that are in row three and below can have expanded octets. This is due to the fact that the elements row three and below can utilize the d orbital, allowing an additional ten electrons after the initial octet. Row 2 and above however, is limited to an octet, eight electrons, because they can only utilize s and p orbitals.
Elements that can have expanded octets include the 3rd row and every element below. This is due to the d-block with some elements as an exception to this rule. Elements above the third row must fulfill the octet rule when drawing a lewis structure.
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