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They can be expanded further! For example, when Xe bonds with 4 fluorine atoms, it can make 4 single bonds and have 2 lone pairs and still have a formal charge of zero, giving it 12 valence electrons! (4 bonds+2 lone pairs= 8, 8-8=0). A lot of the time I like to think about expanded octets in terms of formal charge.
Expanded octets can include those past 10 electrons, meaning valence shells with 12 are valid. For example, take sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). If we draw out its Lewis structure, it becomes clear that S, the central atom, has an expanded octet of 12 electrons. I am not 100% sure about valence shells with 14 electrons because I do not think I have ever seen one, but I think for our purposes in this class, we probably will not be tested on anything above 12. I do not think that you have to worry about this concept too much as long as you know the methodology behind creating a proper Lewis structure.
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