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If the oxygen on H2O has 2 lone pairs, why can it only donate one? Similarly, why is it that the oxygens in C2O2 can only donate 1 lone pair? Why can the oxygen with the double bond in C2O2 not donate any at all?
Both answers are correct; water typically donates only 1 lone pair because donating both would give it a very positive formal charge which is highly unfavorable for such an electronegative atom, and because the positioning of the lone pairs prevents both from donating to the same molecule at the same time.
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