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A coordinate covalent will occur between a Lewis acid and a Lewis base (think of NH3 or F- sharing a pair of electrons). A polar covalent bond is when one electron is shared between two atoms; polar describes the ionic character of the bond. More electrons in the electron cloud will be pulled towards the atom with a higher electronegativity, so the polar covalent bond has more ionic character than a nonpolar covalent bond.
Covalent bonding occurs between two atoms that share electrons in order to complete each other's octet. With coordinate covalent bonding, a lewis base will coordinate covalently bond to a lewis acid and provide all of the electrons needed to complete the lewis acid's octet. In this case, the lewis acid is not sharing any of its electrons and instead requires the donation of all the electrons needed to complete its octet.
A coordinate bond is formed when one atom donates a lone pair of electrons to an empty orbital of another atom, so both electrons in the bond come from the same atom. However, a polar covalent bond just means that there is a big difference in electronegativity of the two atom, electrons are still shared between two atoms.
Coordinate covalent bond forms between a lewis acid and a base. Where the lewis acid donates TWO electrons to form a bond. A polar covalent bond is seen when the electronegativity of the two atoms that form a bond are different causing partial charges.
A coordinate covalent bond forms when one atom shares an electron pair with another atom. In polar covalent bond, electrons are not equally shared and electronegativity values (to a small degree) are different.
A coordinate covalent bond happens between a lewis acid and a lewis base, where one lone pair of electron is shared between the two. A polar covalent bond happens when one pair of electrons is unequally shared between two atoms. Hope this helps!
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