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A triple bond between the C and O gives them both a full octet with the 10 available electrons. Because each has a lone pair, you end up with a positive and negative charge. This, however, cancels out. Any other configuration would get you a formal charge even further away from 0.
Simple formal charge calculations. The carbon atom, for example, has 4 valence electrons, but if you take the electrons in a CO molecule (2 lone electrons and 3 bonded electron pairs) you will get 4 - 5 = -1 formal charge.
This is due to the lewis structure as carbon monoxide requires a triple bond to fulfill the 10 valence electrons needed in the structure. Furthermore when conducting formal charge, carbon would have a +1 charge while oxygen would have a -1 charge.
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