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Hi! Electron distortion is when the electrons of the anion are attracted to the cation, which causes the shape of the electron density to change slightly. The distortion of the electron density shape leads to an ionic bond having covalent bond characteristics because the electrons are not completely separate from the cation anymore, they are now slightly closer to the cation. The cation is the polarizing ion and the anion is the polarizable ion. The electron density of the anion is the one that's being distorted or polarized.
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