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If charges favor a certain area more than any other area, it is polar. So usually if there is a lone pair hanging out polarity may occur because the lone pair pushes the bonds away more than a typical bond, thus the charges from the bonds are in a tighter local, thus not as equally spread out.
A molecule is considered to be polar when there is an unequal sharing of electrons between the two atoms. This is shown through the unequal sharing of electrons due to the difference in the Electronegativity of the two atoms. The more electronegative atom will pull the shared electrons more toward itself, making it partial negative and this makes the other atom partial positive. A non polar molecule will have both atoms in the molecule have the same electronegativity so the electrons are shared equally.
This is usually determined by looking at which atom in the molecule is more electronegative. For example, H2O is a polar molecule because the Oxygen is more electronegative, i.e. the electrons are more drawn towards the oxygen atom. This is because elelectronegativity is based on the atoms ionization energy, the energy needed to remove an electron, and electron affinity, both which increase across a period and decrease down a group.
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