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Both size and charge need to be taken into account when organizing atoms. The charge density, which is a measure of the charge in terms of the volume that the atom takes up, is used to compare atoms to each other (not solely charge or solely size). s2- is smaller and should be more difficult to polarize (higher polarizing power though) because its atoms are held closer to it. Mg2+ should have more polarizability because it is bigger than Li2+.
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