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I think these answers were made in relations to the graph in the book that lists specific electron affinities. Otherwise, you would not know the exact value for electron affinities. But, the general trend is to increase towards the right hand side of the table.
An exception to take note of when viewing trends on the periodic table is that of Nitrogen and Carbon. Due to Nitrogen's half sub shell, it has greater stability and doesn't need an electron as much as Carbon does so that means Nitrogen has a lower electron affinity than Carbon.
I believe Sulfur has a higher affinity than Oxygen because sulfur is able to have an expanded octet, meaning it can have more than 8 electrons because it still has the 3d subshell while oxygen strictly follows the octet guideline (can only have 8 electrons).
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