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Isoelectronic simply refers to two atoms that have the same amount of electrons. For instance, Neon has 10 electrons as does Fluorine-, which starts with 9 electrons but gains another to have 10 total, so these two atoms are isoelectronic.
Atoms and ions with equal number of electrons are isoelectronic. Examples include Na+, F-, and Mg2+. Be cautious, however, as these three ions have the same electron configuration (same number of electrons) but their radii differ because they have different nuclear charges. This means that the Mg2+ ion has the largest nuclear charge since it has the most protons, so it has the strongest attraction for electrons and thus the smallest radius of the three. In contrast, F- has the lowest nuclear charge, so it has the largest radius even though all three have the same number of electrons.
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