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Elements that have a high need to complete their valence shell through adding electrons have higher electronegativity values (since that is its ability to attract an electron to itself). Fluorine has the highest since it needs one more electron to complete its valence shell and experiences less electron shielding from the protons in the nucleus as its the smallest element in its group.
Electronegativity is the value of how badly an atom attracts electrons. As such, any atom which wants more electrons to fill its valence shell will be more electronegative. You can use periodic trends to determine electronegativity.
typically electronegative atoms make covalent bonds and are non metal. It is more electronegative when it wants more electrons. For example, in H2O, Oxygen is very electronegative and that is why it bonds with 2 hydrogen atoms.
As valence electrons in a shell get higher and closer to 8, they want that last electron very strongly, making the electronegativity of that element strong. For example, Chlorine has a very high electronegativity because it has 7 valence electrons.
Electronegativity is rating how strong the protons are pulling in the negative electrons. As there are more electrons in a valence shell of an element, it gets more electronegative, as there is more pull. Furthermore, with the same number of valence electrons, ones with more shells have less electronegativity since those valence electrons are farther from the nucleus and protons.
The closer an element is to completing their valence shell then the more electronegative they are. This is because they have a stronger tendency of attracting a bonding pair of electrons since they essentially really want to complete their shell.
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