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electronegativity is just the tendency for an atom to gain electrons. If you think of it logically, atoms on the further right side of the periodic table would want to get one electron in order to reach the most stable form (aka noble gas configuration)
You would have to be given an electronegativity table to know the exact electronegativities of each atom, but generally you can follow the periodic trend (electronegativity increases across a row and decreases down a group).
I don't think we would have to know how to calculate the actual electronegativity values. Since electronegativity is how strong an atom attracts electrons, you can memorize that fluorine has the strongest electronegativity on periodic table to find the general trend. F is located on the upper-right corner of the periodic table, it is easier to memorize that electronegativity increases from left to right and bottom to top!
This is outside of the scope of this class, but it was cool so I searched it up. There is a person named Linus Pauling who made a scale to measure electronegativity from 0.79-3.98 (1-4). He assigned Flourine to be 4, and then calculated the rest through experimental observation. This is known as the Pauling scale. It is measured in Pauling units.
Based on what Dr. Lavelle said, I think it depends on both ionization energy and electron affinity. The higher the ionization energy and electron affinity is, the higher the electronegativity is, thus meaning more shared electrons are being pulled toward it. The lower the ionization energy and electron affinity is, the lower the electronegativity is, meaning electrons are pulled further away.
It also helps to use the periodic trends. Electronegativity is calculated using ionization energy and electron affinity, so if ionization energy and electron affinity are high, then the atom will also have a high electronegativity. You can figure out the ionization energy and electron affinity by using period trends- both increase up a group and across a period.
I don't think we need to know a way to calculate the electronegativity of an atom. We do need to know the electronegativity trend on the periodic table of elements. It also wouldn't hurt to know what the most electronegative elements are. They are fluorine, oxygen, and nitrogen. I like to remember them by the term FON.
We can't necessarily determine an exact value for electronegativity, but what this class wants us to focus on is the period trend. So electronegativity increases when going up and to the right of the periodic table. This would make fluorine the most electronegative element on the table.
You will not need to know the specific calculations of electronegativity and if you do, they will be given to you. Just know the general trend of electronegativity and it is similar to ionization energy as mentioned in the lecture. The electronegativity of atoms increases as you move from left to right across a period in the periodic table.
We haven't really learned how to calculate electronegativity but we do need to know the concept. What helps me is knowing that the left is more electronegative. The closer it is to F than I know it is more electronegative :)
If you ever have to calculate electronegativity, don't worry because the answer should already be given in the problem or on a periodic table! There are trends on the periodic table to determine levels of electronegativity. Electronegativity increases from left to right and decreases from top to bottom. It's useful to also know that fluorine has the highest electronegativity.
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