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O has only one e- less than F, giving it a high nuclear charge and a greater ability to attract e-. On the other hand, Cl is below F with an entirely new shell of valence e- added to it, which decreases the nuclear charge experienced by outer e- and decreases its ability to attract e- compared to the O atom.
IIRC Oxygen is the second most electronegative element, second only to Fluorine. When both of these elements fill their valence they have the very stable configuration of neon. While Chlorine is closer to filling its octet than oxygen is, its valence electrons are also farther from its nucleus than they are in oxygen.
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