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Yes. If the two atoms in the covalent bond are not the same, one will inevitable be more electronegative than the other and will draw electrons towards itself. This will make it partially negative and the other atom partially positive. This charge difference is what dipole moment refers to.
Yes a dipole moment occurs when there is a charge difference in the covalent bond. This only occurs when two different atoms are bonded together because they have an electronegativity difference. Therefore, the atom with the higher electronegativity difference will pull the shared electrons closer giving it a slight negative charge while the other atom has a slight positive charge. This charge difference creates the dipole moment. The dipole moment is then determined by the charge and the distance between atoms. The larger the charge and the larger the distance leads to a larger dipole moment.
Essentially yes. A dipole moment is when there are polar bonds within a molecule. When a molecule has a dipole moment or is a dipole, there is a separation of positive and negative charges.
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